ajax jquery json


ajax jquery json

 

AJAX and JSON with jQuery Chen-Hsiang (Jones) Yu chyumit.edu http://chyu.scripts.mit.edu/ajax-json-jquery-examples.zip Jan. 5, 2010 6.470 1 p y p j j jq y p p The goal of this lecture The goal of this lecture ? Understand and know how to use AJAX ? Understand JSON ? Understand and know how to use jQuery ? Understand the usage of AJAX and JSON with jQuery g jQ y jQuery AJAX JSON Jan. 5, 2010 6.470 2 Outline Outline ? AJAX ? JSON ? JSON ? jQuery Jan. 5, 2010 6.470 3 Prerequisites Prerequisites ? MIT SIPB Web Script Service http://scripts mit edu/web/ http://scripts.mit.edu/web/ Instructions: o Using any terminal to connect to Athena athena% add scripts o athena% add scripts athena% signup-web o Your web space will be at http://username.scripts.mit.edu/ o You can use any FTP client to upload your files and scripts o You can use any FTP client to upload your files and scripts ? FTP client: Filezilla (Windows/Linux/Mac) Filezilla (Windows/Linux/Mac) o http://filezilla-project.org/download.php Alternative: OpenAFS - http://www.openafs.org/ Jan. 5, 2010 6.470 4 AJAX Jan. 5, 2010 6.470 5 AJAX - 1 AJAX 1 ? It stands for ?Asynchronous JavaScript and XML? ? It was first mentioned by Jesse James Garrett in 2005. [1] ? It is not a new technology. It is several technologies. [1] standards-based presentation: XHTML and CSS dynamic display and interaction: DOM data interchange and manipulation: XML and XSLT asynchronous data retrieval: XMLHttpRequest binding everything together: JavaScript Jan. 5, 2010 6.470 6 AJAX - 2 AJAX 2 ? Intuition: Static web site vs. AJAX site ? AJAX engine: XMLHttpRequest object It allows for asynchronous communication Instead of freezing up until the completeness, the browser can communicate with server and continue as normal. Jan. 5, 2010 6.470 7 AJAX - 3 AJAX 3 Jan. 5, 2010 6.470 8 Figure: Traditional model vs. AJAX model [1] Figure: Synchronous interaction vs. Asynchronous interaction [1] AJAX - 4 AJAX 4 a. b. c abandon v./n. to give up completely SQL Query c. to give up completely abash v. to make embarrassed Web Browser Script Languages 1 PHP Database data 1. mySQL C t t 1. PHP Content: 1. HTML Document 2. XML Document 3. JSON Document Figure: The process of AJAX call Jan. 5, 2010 6.470 9 9 AJAX - 5 AJAX 5 ? POST and GET calls in AJAX [2] GET places arguments in the query string, but POST doesn?t. No noticeable difference in AJAX - AJAX request does not appear in the address bar. GET call in AJAX still has the size limitation on the amount of data that can be passed can be passed. General principle: o GET method: it is used to retrieve data to display in the page and the o GET method: it is used to retrieve data to display in the page and the data is not expected to be changed on the server. o POST method: it is used to update information on the server. Jan. 5, 2010 6.470 10 p Exercise: Example 1 Exercise: Example 1 A letters A B C abandon v./n. to give up completely abash v. to make embarrassed content to make embarrassed ? ? letter Jan. 5, 2010 6.470 11 GRE Word List <?php print '<div class="entry"> <h3 class="term">ABANDON</h3> <div class="part">v /n </div> div class part v./n. /div <div class="definition"> to give up completely </div> </div> <div class="entry"> <h3 class="term">ABASH</h3> <div class="part">v.</div> <div class="definition"> to make embarrassed </div> </div> </div> '; ; ?> example1.php http://chyu.scripts.mit.edu/example1.php Jan. 5, 2010 6.470 12 AJAX ? 6 Example 1 <html> <head> function sendRequest(url){ AJAX 6 Example 1 <link rel="stylesheet" href="example1.css" type="text/css"/> <script type="text/javascript"> var ajax; f ti j C t (){ ajax = ajaxCreate(); if(!ajax){ alert("Browser is not compatable with XMLHttpRequest"); return 0; } function ajaxCreate(){ if(window.XMLHttpRequest){ //For IE7+, Firefox, Chrome, Opera, Safari return new XMLHttpRequest(); } else { //For IE6 IE5 } } ajax.onreadystatechange = receiveData; ajax.open("GET", url, true); ajax.send(null); //For IE6, IE5 return new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.XMLHTTP"); } } function receiveData(){ } </script> </head> <body> if(ajax.readyState == 4){ if(ajax.status == 200){ var content = document.getElementById('content'); content.innerHTML = ajax.responseText; }else{ alert("Server process error"); <div class="letters"> <div class="letter" id="letter-a"> <h3> <a href="javascript:sendRequest('example1.php')">A</a> </h3> </div> alert("Server process error"); } } } </div> </div> <div id="content"></div> </body> </html> Jan. 5, 2010 6.470 13 example1.html http://chyu.scripts.mit.edu/example1.html AJAX - 5 AJAX 5 Properties Description [3] onreadystatechange A JavaScript function object that is called whenever the readyState attribute y g p j y changes. The callback is called from the user interface thread. readyState Returns values that indicate the current state of the object. Value State Description 0 UNINITIALIZED open() has not been called yet 0 UNINITIALIZED open() has not been called yet. 1 LOADING send() has not been called yet. 2 LOADED send() has been called, and headers and status are available. 3 INTERACTIVE Downloading; responseText holds partial data. 4 COMPLETED The operation is complete. responseText The response to the request as text, or null if the request was unsucessful or has not yet been sent. responseXML The response to the request as a DOM Document object, or null if the request was ns ccessf l has not et been sent o cannot be pa sed as XML The esponse is unsuccessful, has not yet been sent, or cannot be parsed as XML. The response is parsed as if it were a text/xml stream. status The status of the response to the request. This is the HTTP result code (for example, status is 200 for a successful request). statusText The response string returned by the HTTP server. Unlike status, this includes the Jan. 5, 2010 6.470 14 statusText The response string returned by the HTTP server. Unlike status, this includes the entire text of the response message ("200 OK", for example). AJAX - 6 AJAX 6 Methods Description [3] Abort() Aborts the request if it has already been sent. getAllResponseHeaders() Returns all the response headers as a string.. getResponseHeader("headerLabel") Returns the text of a specified header. open("method" "URL"[ open( method , URL [, asyncFlag[, "userName"[, "password"]]]) Initializes a request. This method is to be used from JavaScript code; to initialize a request from native code, use openRequest() instead. send(content) Sends the request. If the request is asynchronous (which is the default), this method returns as soon as the request is sent. If the request is synchronous this method doesn't return until the response ( ) request is synchronous, this method doesn t return until the response has arrived. setRequestHeader("label", "value") Sets the value of an HTTP request header. Jan. 5, 2010 6.470 15 Jan. 5, 2010 6.470 16 JSON Jan. 5, 2010 6.470 17 JSON - 1 JSON 1 ? Text is a data transmission format on the Internet ? A need to transmit complicated (structured) data ? A need to transmit complicated (structured) data Book info, movie info, etc. ? Idea: Encode data Transmit in text format Decode data Jan. 5, 2010 6.470 18 JSON - 2 JSON 2 ? It stands for ?JavaScript Object Notation? and it is a text- b d d t i t h f t [4] based data interchange format. [4] ? JSON is built on two structures: Object: A collection of name and value pairs j p Array: An ordered list of values Jan. 5, 2010 6.470 19 Figure: The diagrams of the syntax of JSON [3] Explanation Examples object with one member { "course-name": "6.470? } object with two members { "course name": "6 470" object with two members (separated by a comma) "course-name": "6.470", "units": 6 } array with 3 elements ["foo", "bar", 12345] { object with an array as a value { "course-name": "6.470", "times": ["12-4","12-4", "12-4"] } { "John": objects with objects and arrays John : { "label":"John", "data":[[1880,0.081536],[1881,0.08098],[1882,0.078308]] }, "James": { "label":"James", "data":[[1880,0.050053],[1881,0.05025],[1882,0.048278]] } } Jan. 5, 2010 6.470 20 Concrete Examples [5] JSON - 3 JSON 3 ? Examples: { { "course-name? : "6.470? } ["foo", "bar", 12345] { "course-name? : "6.470", "times": ["12-4","12-4", "12-4"] } Jan. 5, 2010 6.470 21 Figure: The diagrams of the syntax of JSON [4] JSON - 4 JSON 4 "data":[[1880 0 081536] [1881 0 08098] [1882 0 078308]] data :[[1880,0.081536],[1881,0.08098],[1882,0.078308]] Jan. 5, 2010 6.470 22 Figure: The diagrams of the syntax of JSON [4] JSON - 5 JSON 5 ? Why JSON format is easier to be evaluated? var a = { "John": { "label":"John", , "data":[[1880,0.081536],[1881,0.08098],[1882,0.078308]] }, "James": { "label":"James" label : James , "data":[[1880,0.050053],[1881,0.05025],[1882,0.048278]] } } To get the value 1880 marked with red color: o We can use a.John.data[0][0] Jan. 5, 2010 6.470 23 Exercise: Example 2 Exercise: Example 2 A B abandon v./n. content letters C to give up completely abash v. to make embarrassed ? ? letter Jan. 5, 2010 6.470 24 Example 2: Extending Example 1 <script type="text/javascript"> ? function receiveData(){ Example 2: Extending Example 1 Wh t i th bl ? (){ if(ajax.readyState == 4){ if(ajax.status == 200){ var data = [ { "word":"ABANDON", "function":"v /n " What is the problem? function : v./n. , "definition":"to give up completely"}, { "word":"ABASH", "function":"v.", "definition":"to make embarrassed"} ]; var content = document.getElementById('content'); content.innerHTML = data; }else{ }else{ alert("Server process error"); } } } example2.html http://chyu scripts mit edu/example2 html Jan. 5, 2010 6.470 25 ? </script> http://chyu.scripts.mit.edu/example2.html Wh t i th bl ? What is the problem? Jan. 5, 2010 6.470 26 <script type="text/javascript"> ? function receiveData(){ if( j d St t 4){ if(ajax.readyState == 4){ if(ajax.status == 200){ var data = [ { "word":"ABANDON", "function":"v./n.", "definition":"to give up completely"} definition : to give up completely }, { "word":"ABASH", "function":"v.", "definition":"to make embarrassed"} ]; var output = ""; for(each in data){ output += '<div class="entry">'; output += '<h3 class="word">' + data[each].word + '</h3>'; output += '<div class="function">' + data[each].function + '</div>'; t t ' di l "d fi iti " ' d t [ h] d fi iti ' /di ' output += '<div class="definition">' + data[each].definition + '</div>'; output += '</div>'; } var content = document.getElementById('content'); content innerHTML = output; content.innerHTML output; }else{ alert("Server process error"); } } } example2-sol.html Jan. 5, 2010 6.470 27 ? </script> p http://chyu.scripts.mit.edu/example2-sol.html Jan. 5, 2010 6.470 28 jQuery Jan. 5, 2010 6.470 29 query ? query ? query ? query ? query ? query ? query ? query ? query ? query ? query ? query ? query ? jQuery - 1 jQuery 1 ? JavaScript libraries and frameworks Prototype, jQuery, Dojo, Echo, GWT, MooTools, Rico, YUI, etc. ? Advantages Providing common utilities Handling cross-platform issues (Might) provide extendibility - plugins Faster Web development Jan. 5, 2010 6.470 30 jQuery - 2 jQuery 2 ? jQuery: A JavaScript library was released by John Resig in 2006 ? Idea: Putting together a set of functions Navigate a document Event handling Select DOM elements Create animations Ajax development Extendibility: plugins ? It is used at 21% of the 10000 most popular websites. [6] Jan. 5, 2010 6.470 31 jQuery - 3 jQuery 3 ? Usage: Step 1: Download the latest jQuery from jQuery.com Step 2: Link the downloaded .js file - <script type=?text/javascript? src=?jquery-1.3.2.js?></script> - Note: It adds jQuery() function in the global namespace and the function is also aliased as $() function is also aliased as $(). Step 3: Write your code Jan. 5, 2010 6.470 32 jQuery - 4 jQuery 4 ? APIs: jQ jQuery core Selectors Attributes T i Traversing Manipulation CSS E t Events Effects Ajax Utiliti Utilities jQuery UI Jan. 5, 2010 6.470 33 jQuery - 5 jQuery 5 ? APIs: jQ jQuery core Selectors Attributes T i Traversing Manipulation CSS E t Events Effects Ajax Utiliti Utilities jQuery UI Jan. 5, 2010 6.470 34 jQuery - 6 jQuery 6 ? Core: jQuery functions: o $(expression, [context]) $(?input:radio?, document.form[0]) o $(html) $(' di id ?l di " L di /di ') $('<div id=?loading">Loading...</div>') o $(elements) $(document body) css(?background? ?red?); $(document.body).css(?background?, ?red?); o $(callback) The same as $(document).ready() $(function(){alert(?test?);}) Jan. 5, 2010 6.470 35 $(function(){alert( test );}) jQuery - 7 jQuery 7 ? Selectors: No matter which type of selectors, we start with $(). jQuery supports nearly all selectors in CSS 1 through 3. Types: o Basic: l t #id l l A l B element, #id, class, .classA.classB Ex: $(?p?), $(?#id?), $(?.class?), $(?.classA.classB?) o Hierarchy: o Hierarchy: ancestor decendent, parent > child, prev + next Ex: $(?form input?) $(?#main > *?) $(?label + input?) Jan. 5, 2010 6.470 36 Ex: $( form input ), $( #main > ), $( label + input ) jQuery - 8 jQuery 8 o Form: Selectors Matched Elements :input input, select, textarea and button elements :text, :radio, :checkbox, :image, :submit :reset :password :file input element with attribute that is equal to the specified selectors :submit, :reset, :password, :file selectors :button button element, input element with type is ?button? o Basic filters: :first , :last , :not(selector) , :even , :odd , :eq(index) , :gt(index) , :lt(index) , :header , :animated o Attribute filters: [attribute] , [attribute!=value] , [attribute^=value] , Jan. 5, 2010 6.470 37 [attribute$=value] , [attribute*=value], [filter1][filter2] jQuery - 9 jQuery 9 ? Attributes: Attr: o attr(name), attr(properties) attr(key,value), removeAttr(name) Class: o addClass(class), removeClass(class), toggleClass(class) HTML: o html(), html(value) Text: o text(), text(value) Value: o val(), val(value) Jan. 5, 2010 6.470 38 jQuery - 10 jQuery 10 ? Events: l d Page load: o ready(fn) Event handling: o bind(type, fn), unbind(type, fn), trigger(event) Event helpers: o click(), click(fn), mousedown(fn), mouseout(fn), ? ? Effects: Basics: o show() show(speed) hide() toggle() toggle(speed) o show(), show(speed), hide(), toggle(), toggle(speed) Fading: o fadeIn(speed), fadeOut(speed), fadeTo(speed, opacity) Jan. 5, 2010 6.470 39 Exercise: Example 3 Exercise: Example 3 content A SCANDAL IN BOHEMIA I. To Sherlock Holmes she is always THE woman. I have seldom heard him mention her under any other name. In F F F ? Please use example3.html ? Requirement: his eyes she eclipses and predominates the whole of her sex. It was not that he felt any emotion akin to love for Irene Adler. All emotions, and that one particularly, were abhorrent to his cold..... II. o Using jQuery selectors, attributes, events o When clicking font symbols (small, medium, large) the content of paragraphs can change At three o'clock precisely I was at Baker Street, but Holmes had not yet returned. The landlady informed me that he had left the house shortly after eight o'clock in the morning. .. large), the content of paragraphs can change properly. o Set default font size of the content of paragraphs as ?medium?. example3.html Jan. 5, 2010 6.470 40 p http://chyu.scripts.mit.edu/example3.html Exercise: Example 3 - reference solution ? <script type="text/javascript"> Exercise: Example 3 reference solution $(document).ready(function(){ $('#large').bind(?click?, function(){ $('p').removeClass().addClass('large'); }); $('#medium').bind(?click?, function(){ $('p').removeClass().addClass('medium'); }); $('#small').bind(?click?, function(){ $('p').removeClass().addClass('small'); }); // Set default font size as medium $('#medium').trigger('click'); }); </script> example3-sol.html Jan. 5, 2010 6.470 41 </script> ? p http://chyu.scripts.mit.edu/example3-sol.html Exercise: Example 3 Exercise: Example 3 Jan. 5, 2010 6.470 42 The content was from [7]. jQuery - 11 jQuery 11 ? Ajax: Ajax Request: o $.ajax(options) => options: a set of key/value pairs o $.get(url, [data], [callback], [type]) o $.post(url, [data], [callback], [type]) o $.getJSON(url, [data], [callback], [type]) o $.getScript(url, [callback]) $ post( $.post( "test.php", { func: "getNameAndTime" }, $.ajax( { url: ?process.php", type: "POST", data: ?class=6470&name=Tim", function(data){ alert(data.name); alert(data.time); }, "json? data: class 6470&name Tim , success: function(msg){ alert(?Data:" + msg ); } } ) Jan. 5, 2010 6.470 43 json ); ); jQuery - 12 jQuery 12 $ tJSON( $.getJSON( "http://api.flickr.com/services/feeds/photos_public.gne?tags=doggy&format=json&jsoncallback=?", function(data){ $ each(data items f nction(i item){ $.each(data.items, function(i,item){ $("<img/>").attr("src", item.media.m).appendTo("#images"); if ( i == 2 ) return false; } } ); } ); ); Jan. 5, 2010 6.470 44 jQuery - 13 jQuery 13 Ajax Events: o ajaxComplete(callback), ajaxStart(callback), ajaxStop(callback), o ajaxComplete(callback), ajaxStart(callback), ajaxStop(callback), ajaxSend(callback), ajaxError(callback), ajaxSuccess(callback) o Ex: $('<div id="loading">Loading...</div>') $( div id loading Loading... /div ) .insertBefore("#images") .ajaxStart( function(){ (){ $(this).show(); } ).ajaxStop( j function(){ $(this).hide(); } Jan. 5, 2010 6.470 45 ); Exercise: Example 4 Exercise: Example 4 a. b. c. abandon v./n. to give up completely abash v. to make embarrassed Jan. 5, 2010 6.470 46 Exercise: Example 4 <?php $data = ' Exercise: Example 4 [ { "word": "ABANDON", "function": "v./n.", "definition": "to give up completely" } }, { "word": "ABASH", "function": "v.", "definition": "to make embarrassed" }, }, { "word": "ABATE", "function": "v.", "definition": "to make less in amount; wane" }, { "word": "ABBREVIATE", "function": "v.", "definition": "to make shorter; to shorten a word or phrase" } ] example4.php Jan. 5, 2010 6.470 47 ] '; print($_GET['callback'].'('.$data.')'); ?> http://chyu.scripts.mit.edu/example4.php Example 4: Using jQuery for example 1 ? <script type="text/javascript"> $(document).ready(function(){ Example 4: Using jQuery for example 1 Part 1 ( ) y( () var url="example4.php"; $('#letter-a').click(function(){ $.getJSON( l + '? llb k ?' 1st parameter url + '?callback=?', function(data){ $('#content').empty(); $.each(data, function(index, entry){ var html = '<div class="entry">'; html += '<h3 class="word">' + entry['word'] + '</h3>'; 1st parameter html + <h3 class word > + entry[ word ] + </h3> ; html += '<div class="function">' + entry['function'] + '</div>'; html += '<div class="definition">' + entry['definition'] + '</div>'; html += '</div>'; $('#content').fadeIn().append(html); }); 2nd parameter }); return false; }); ? }); Jan. 5, 2010 6.470 48 }); </script> ? example4.html http://chyu.scripts.mit.edu/example4.html Example 4: Using jQuery for example 1 ? <script type="text/javascript"> Example 4: Using jQuery for example 1 Part 2 <script type= text/javascript > $(document).ready(function(){ ? // Slide up or down the function and definition of the word $('.word').live('click', function(){ $(this).siblings('.function').slideToggle().siblings('.definition').slideToggle(); }); $('#showDetails').click(function(){ $('.word').siblings('.function').show('slow').siblings('.definition').show('slow'); }); }); $('#hideDetails').click(function(){ $('.word').siblings('.function').hide('slow').siblings('.definition').hide('slow'); }); }); </script> ? Chaining the effects Jan. 5, 2010 6.470 49 example4.html http://chyu.scripts.mit.edu/example4.html Example 4: Using jQuery for example 1 ? <script type="text/javascript"> $(document).ready(function(){ var url="example4.php"; Example 4: Using jQuery for example 1 Complete Version $('#letter-a').click(function(){ $.getJSON(url + '?callback=?', function(data){ $('#content').empty(); $.each(data, function(index, entry){ var html = '<div class="entry">'; html += '<h3 class="word">' + entry['word'] + '</h3>'; html + '<div class "function">' + entry['function'] + '</div>'; html += <div class= function > + entry[ function ] + </div> ; html += '<div class="definition">' + entry['definition'] + '</div>'; html += '</div>'; $('#content').fadeIn().append(html); }); }); return false; ; }); // Slide up or down the function and definition of the word $('.word').live('click', function(){ $(this).siblings('.function').slideToggle().siblings('.definition').slideToggle(); }); $('#showDetails').click(function(){ $('.word').siblings('.function').show('slow').siblings('.definition').show('slow'); }); $('#hideDetails').click(function(){ $(' word') siblings(' function') hide('slow') siblings(' definition') hide('slow'); Jan. 5, 2010 6.470 50 $( .word ).siblings( .function ).hide( slow ).siblings( .definition ).hide( slow ); }); }); </script> ? example4.html http://chyu.scripts.mit.edu/example4.html Jan. 5, 2010 6.470 51 References References [1] Ajax: A New Approach to Web Applications. http://www.adaptivepath.com/ideas/essays/archives/000385.php [2] AJAX G t P t htt //j i t b t / d/ j / / j ht [2] AJAX - Get or Post. http://javascript.about.com/od/ajax/a/ajaxgp.htm [3] Mozilla XMLHttpRequest. https://developer.mozilla.org/en/XMLHttpRequest [4] Introducing JSON. http://www.json.org/index.html [5] 6.470 2009 IAP - AJAX with jQuery. http://6.470.scripts.mit.edu/2009/ [6] Websites using jQuery, ordered by popularity. http://www.backendbattles.com/backend/jQuery [ ] g jQ y, y p p y p // / /jQ y [7] Project Gutenberg - The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes. http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/1661 [8] Jonathan Chaffer and Karl Swedberg, Learning jQuery 1.3, PACKT publishing, 2009. ? Lecture Slides: http://chyu.scripts.mit.edu/ajax-json-jquery-slides.pdf Lecture Slides: http://chyu.scripts.mit.edu/ajax json jquery slides.pdf ? Lecture Examples+Sol: http://chyu.scripts.mit.edu/ajax-json-jquery-examples+sol.zip Jan. 5, 2010 6.470 52

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